This type of testing is the second best option for testing if the father is deceased, unwilling or just unavailable for testing. Besides a paternity test, the second strongest test option is a grandpaternity test that includes the mother, the child and both paternal grandparents for testing. By including both of the alleged father’s parents, the alleged father’s DNA profile can be reconstructed since his parents contributed the other 50% of the DNA given the child. To explain further, a child inherits 50% of his/her DNA from their father and the other 50% from their mother thereby in this scenario the mother of the child provided 50% of the information already and the other 50% (25% from the grandmother and 25% from grandfather = 50%) allowing us to provide results as strong and accurate as a paternity test.
However, each time a person is removed from this test option, such as a grandparent or mother, the strength of the genetic evidence decreases. This test take about 3 – 5 business for results. See options below for strongest test options with number 1 being the strongest option.
1. Mother, Child, 2 Grandparents
2. Child, 2 Grandparents
3. Mother, Child, 1 Grandparent
4. Child, 1 Grandparent
This option is a good option for testing if the only persons available for testing are the alleged father’s full siblings. An avuncular test involves testing the child’s paternal aunt or uncle (the alleged father’s full sister or full brother – would yield the best results outcome). Two things to consider when using this option first, that the sibling tested is from the same mother and father of the missing alleged father. Second, including the mother in this test is strongly recommended as it strengthens the genetic evidence. Generally, this test will not give results as strong as a grandparentage test or a paternity test, but it is still a good option if the only people available for testing are the alleged father’s siblings.
This type of DNA test involves testing two or more people who potentially share the same biological parent or parents and it is used to determine if individuals are related as full brother and sisters, half brothers and sisters or unrelated. It is strongly recommended that if the mother(s) are known or can be tested that they be included in the test as it will strengthen the test results. Including the mother(s) in the test can increase the results dramatically, where as an example you might see a probability of 98% with the mother(s) included instead of only 83%.
It might seem obvious in most cases that two siblings are identical just by looking at them, but in some cases where they have slight differences in appearances it may be necessary for a DNA test to tell you for sure if they are identical or not.
Identical vs. Fraternal Twins
Identical twins come from one fertilized egg, called a zygote. The zygote, which usually develops into one child, grows and splits early in development to form two embryos—identical twins. Because the twins come from one egg and one sperm, they have exactly the same DNA.
Fraternal twins, on the other hand, develop when there are two different eggs in the mother’s womb that are fertilized by two different sperms. Fraternal twins will not have exactly the same DNA, although like other siblings, they can be expected to share some of the DNA they inherit from both parents.
A Maternity test is much like a paternity test. A maternity DNA test determines whether a woman could be the biological mother of a child. It compares a child’s DNA with that of the alleged mother to determine how likely it is that she is the biological mother. This type of test is most commonly used to prove biological relationships in an immigration case. It is also used to confirm that an adoptee has been reunited with his/her birth mother or to confirm that an embryo conceived through in vitro fertilization was implanted into the correct mother. Although uncommon, it can also resolve situations in which mothers or hospital staff suspect that a baby mix-up has occurred in the nursery.
This type of test is more complex but it is another indirect way to determine family relationship when the alleged father is deceased or is not available or unwilling for testing. In genetic reconstruction, a significant portion of the tested parties DNA will be analyzed to determine whether or not a child is related to the alleged father’s close relatives.
We will require for this test, the mother of the child, the child and two relatives of the alleged father such as two full siblings or one biological parent and one full sibling. Although each individual’s DNA profile is unique, close relatives will share a significant amount of DNA whereby a series of such shared DNA is analyzed reconstructing the hereditary nature of the DNA. Participation of the mother is required since she contributes 50% of the information being analyzed. If the child’s mother is not available, we can only perform the test with the participation of at least three close relatives of the alleged father.
Males have Y-chromosomes which are passed from father to son relatively unchanged through many generations. That is why this test is a good option when the alleged father is not available for testing and it can confirm whether or not a child shares a common paternal lineage. This test is used to determine if 2 or more males have a direct paternal connection (share the same Y-Chromosomes), such as a grandfather to a grandson or an uncle to his nephew as he would pass this Y-chromosome he inherited from his own father to his son (the child) and thereon.
As an example, if an alleged uncle or grandfather and a male child are tested, their Y-STR profiles must match to determine a direct paternal lineage. If they do not, then the alleged uncle or grandfather is excluded (not considered a biological uncle or grandfather) and the alleged father is probably not the biological father.
This test can also confirm a relationship to long-lost relatives and possible ancestors through the male/paternal line. This test option is not used to prove relationship in cases such as immigration.
This test can confirm a direct maternal connection between 2 or more participants (male or female) whether you are looking for your mother or long-lost relatives. It is mostly used in situations where maternity maybe in question such as an adoption and the mother is not available for a maternity test. We can determine the child’s relationship by testing an alleged sister, a maternal aunt or uncle. This test will determine if the tested parties come from the same female/maternal line confirming the relationship.